The CF-104 for Canada
On July 2, 1959, it was announced that Canada had chosen the F-104 Starfighter as the replacement for the Sabre Mk.6 in service with the RCAF's European Air Division. However, since the Canadian government wanted equipment to be fitted that was specific to RCAF requirements, it opted to manufacture the aircraft under license in a Canadian factory rather than to buy the aircraft outright from Lockheed. On August 14, it was announced that Canadair of Montreal had been selected to manufacture 200 aircraft for the RCAF under license from Lockheed. In addition, Canadair was to manufacture wings, tail assemblies, and rear fuselage sections for 66 Lockheed-built Starfighters that were destined for the West German Luftwaffe. The license production contract was signed on September 17, 1959.
The Canadian-built Starfighter was initially designated CF-111 by the RCAF, but this was later changed to CF-104. They were designated CL-90 by the Canadair factory.
The CF-104 was basically similar to the F-104G, but was fitted with equipment specialized for RCAF requirements. It differed from the F-104G in being optimized for the nuclear strike role rather than being a multi-mission aircraft. The F-104G was fitted with NASARR F15A-41B equipment which was optimized for both air-to-air and air-to-ground modes, but the CF-104 was fitted with R-24A NASARR equipment which was dedicated to the air-to-ground mode only. The main undercarriage members were fitted with longer-stroke liquid springs and carried larger tires. The CF-104 also differed from the F-104G in retaining the removable refueling probe that was fitted to the F-104Cs and F-104Ds of the USAF. Another difference from the F-104G was the ability of the CF-104 to carry a ventral reconnaissance pod equipped with four Vinten cameras. The 20-mm M61A1 cannon and its associated ammunition were initially omitted from the CF-104, and an additional fuel cell was fitted in their place.
In parallel with the production of the Starfighter by Canadair, Orenda Engines, Ltd. acquired a license to build the J-79 engine which was to power it. The CF-104 was powered by a Canadian-built J79-OEL-7 rated at 10,000 lb.s.t. dry and 15,800 lb.s.t. with after burning.
Lockheed sent F-104A-15-LO serial number 56-0770 to Canada to act as a pattern aircraft for CF-104 manufacture. It was later fitted with CF-104 fire control systems and flight control equipment (but not the strengthened airframe of the true F-104G) and turned over to the RCAF, where it was assigned the serial number of 12700. The first Canadair-constructed CF-104 (RCAF serial number 12701) was airlifted to Palmdale, California in the spring of 1961, where it made its first flight on May 26. The second CF-104 (12702) also made its first flight at Palmdale. The first two CF-104s to fly at Montreal were Nos. 12703 and 12704, which both took to the air on August 14, 1961.
CF-104s were initially assigned Canadian serials 12701 through 12900. On May 18, 1970, they were reserialed as 104701 through 104900. The Lockheed-built F-104A pattern aircraft was reserialed from 12700 to 104700.
The 200th and last CF-104 (No. 12900) was completed on September 4, 1963 and delivered to the RCAF on January 10, 1964. Many early production aircraft were modified to the standard of the last production machines. Following the delivery of the last CF-104, Canadair switched to the manufacture of F-104Gs for delivery to NATO allies under the provisions of MAP.
Beginning in December of 1962, the RCAF used its CF-104s to equip eight European-based squadrons of its No. 1 Air Division. Other CF-104s were assigned to the No. 6 OTU based at Cold Lake, Alberta. Apart from the operational conversion unit established at Cold Lake, Alberta in late 1961 (eventually redesignated No 417 Squadron), RCAF CF-104s were all committed to the support of NATO's nuclear deterrent mission in Europe. No. 427 Squadron was the first to form, with initial deliveries to Zweibrucken in December of 1962. In February of 1964, even before France withdrew from NATO in 1966, 2 Wing at Grostenquin was disbanded, and its two CF-104 squadrons were transferred elsewhere, No 421 moving to 4 Wing at Baden-Soellingen and No. 430 moving to Zweibrucken. The RCAF's other French base at Marville was closed by March of 1967, and its two CF-104 reconnaissance squadrons (439 and 441) moved to Lahr in Germany. Nos 434 and 444 Squadrons were disbanded in 1967-68, reducing CF-104 strength to four nuclear strike squadrons and two tactical reconnaissance squadrons.
In May of 1969, 3 Wing at Zweibrucken was closed, and No 427 Squadron was relocated to Baden and No 430 to Lahr.
In 1970, the Canadian government decided to reduce the strength of the Air Division to only three squadrons and to relinquish its nuclear strike role in favor of conventional attack by 1972. By January of 1972, the CF-104s had been converted from their nuclear role to that of conventional ground attack. A 20-mm Vulcan cannon was installed, and the fairing was removed from the cannon port. Twin bomb ejector rack carriers and multi-tube rocket launchers were installed.
In 1972, 1 Air Div was redesignated 1 Canadian Air Group with headquarters at Baden-Soellingen Lahr was closed, and Nos. 422, 427, and 430 Squadrons were disbanded. Nos. 439 and 441 replaced all but 421 Squadron in Nos 3 and 4 Wings at Baden. Of the remaining three squadrons, 421 was committed to converting to ground attack roles, together with No. 431 Squadron, leaving only No. 441 Squadron to continue tactical reconnaissance missions with the Vinten VICON under fuselage camera pod.
A number of former Canadian Forces single-seat CF-104 fighter-bombers and CF-104D two-seat trainers were transferred to Denmark and Norway after having been brought up to F-104G/TF-104G standards. By the end of 1980, these transfers along with attrition had brought European-based RCAF strength down to only three Starfighter squadrons. These were Nos. 421, 439, and 441, all based at Baden-Soellingen in West Germany. At that time, No. 417 Squadron at Cold Lake was still functioning as a CF-104 Operational Conversion Unit.
Beginning in 1983, the CF-104 Starfighters were replaced in Canadian Armed Forces service by McDonnell Douglas CF-18 Hornets. The last CF-104 was phased out by No. 441 Squadron on March 1, 1986. Canada then offered Turkey an initial batch of 20 CF-104s, later increased to 52, including six CF-104Ds. Thirty of these were sent to MBB at Manching in Germany in March of 1986 for overhaul before being transferred to Turkey. The remainder were broken down for spares.
About 110 CF-104/CF-104Ds were lost in accidents, out of 239 delivered -- a loss rate of no less than 46 percent.
RCAF Serials of CF-104 Starfighter
Reserialed 104701/104900 in 1970.
12703 to Denmark as R-704 1971-73
104711 to Turkey in 1986
104713 to Turkey in 1986
104716 to Turkey in 1986
12717 to Norway in 1973.
12730 to Norway in 1973.
104733 to Turkey in 1986
104735 to Turkey in 1986
104737 to Turkey in 1986
104739 to Turkey in 1986
104743 to Turkey in 1986
104747 to Turkey in 1986
104751 to Turkey in 1986
104753 to Turkey in 1986
104756 to Turkey in 1986
12755 to Norway in 1973.
12757 to Denmark as R-757 1971-73
12758 to Denmark as R-758 1971-73
12759 to Norway in 1973.
104760 to Turkey in 1986
104761 to Turkey in 1986
12766 to Norway in 1973.
104770 to Turkey in 1986
12771 to Denmark as R-771 1971-73
104773 to Turkey in 1986
104776 to Turkey in 1986
104780 to Turkey in 1986
104786 to Turkey in 1986
104787 to Turkey in 1986
104795 to Turkey in 1986
104796 to Turkey in 1986
12797 to Norway in 1973.
12800 to Norway in 1973.
12801 to Norway in 1973.
104806 to Turkey in 1986
104808 to Turkey in 1986
104810 to Turkey in 1986
12812 to Denmark as R-812 1971-73
12814 to Denmark as R-814 1971-73
104815 to Turkey in 1986
12818 to Norway in 1973.
12819 to Denmark as R-819 1971-73
104824 to Turkey in 1986
12825 to Denmark as R-825 1971-73
104826 to Turkey in 1986
12832 to Denmark as R-832 1971-73
12833 to Norway in 1973.
12836 to Norway in 1973.
104837 to Turkey in 1986
104839 to Turkey in 1986
104841 to Turkey in 1986
104842 to Turkey in 1986
104845 to Turkey in 1986
12846 to Denmark as R-846 1971-73
104847 to Turkey in 1986
104848 to Turkey in 1986
12850 to Norway in 1973.
12851 to Denmark as R-851 1971-73
12855 to Denmark as R-855 1971-73
104862 to Turkey in 1986
104865 to Turkey in 1986
104866 to Turkey in 1986
104869 to Turkey in 1986
12870 to Norway in 1973.
104873 to Turkey in 1986
12882 to Norway in 1973.
104883 to Turkey in 1986
12886 to Norway in 1973.
12887 to Denmark as R-887 1971-73
12888 to Denmark as R-896 1971-73
12889 to Norway in 1973.
12890 to Norway in 1973.
104891 to Turkey in 1986
104893 to Turkey in 1986
104899 to Turkey in 1986
12900 to Norway in 1973
Specification of the CF-104:
One Orenda Engines-built J79-OEL-7 rated at 10,000 lb.s.t. dry and 15,800 lb.s.t. with after burning. Maximum speed (dash): 1550 mph (Mach 2.35) at 40,000 feet, 915 mph (Mach 1.2) at sea level. Climb to 30,000 feet in 1.5 minutes. Weights were 13,909 pounds empty, 21,005 pounds loaded (clean), 28,891 pounds maximum takeoff. Dimensions were wingspan 21 feet 11 inches, length 54 feet 9 inches, height 13 feet 6 inches, wing area 196.1 square feet. External stores could be carried on five hard points (one underneath the fuselage, one underneath each wing, and one at each wingtip).
CF-104D two-seater for Canada
Lockheed built 38 two-seat trainer versions of the F-104G Starfighter for the Royal Canadian Air Force. These aircraft were similar to the TF-104Gs built by Lockheed for other NATO allies, but were powered by Canadian-built J79-OEL-7 engines. They were given the Lockheed designation of Model 583-04-15, and were initially designated CF-113 in Canadian service. However, this designation was later changed to CF-104D. No CF-104Ds were built in Canada.
The first CF-104D made its maiden flight on June 14, 1961. The last 16 aircraft on the order had slightly different equipment and were designated CF-104D Mk. II. The CF-104Ds were initially given the serials 12631 through 12668, but on May 18, 1970 they were reserialed as 104631 through 104668.
In 1971-1973, seven former Canadian Forces CF-104Ds were transferred to Denmark after having brought up to TF-104G standards. In 1973, two other CF104Ds were transferred to Norway. Following their withdrawal from CAF service, six CF-104Ds were transferred to Turkey following an overhaul in Germany.
Serials of Lockheed CF-104D:
reserialed 104631 through 104668 in 1970.
5302 (104631) to Norway in 1973
5303 (104632) to Norway in 1973
104636 to Turkey in 1986.
104638 to Turkey in 1986.
104642 to Turkey in 1986.
104650 to Turkey in 1986.
12654 to Denmark as RT-654, 1971-73
12655 to Denmark as RT-655, 1971-73
12657 to Denmark as RT-657, 1971-73
104658 to Turkey in 1986.
12660 to Denmark as RT-660, 1971-73
104661 to Turkey in 1986.
12662 to Denmark as RT-662, 1971-73
12664 to Denmark as RT-664, 1971-73
12667 to Denmark as RT-667, 1971-73